Style Guide
In academic writing, a “style” is a kind of template or format that governs the consistent and accurate acknowledgement of direct quotations from other authors and of the source of key ideas. Different academic institutions use different “styles” for the citation of the sources used in compiling written work. Normally the CTC Style Guide (Chicago 17) is used for all assessments.

Parts of an Essay

  • Title Page which includes the following:
    • Unit Name
    • Assessment title
    • Lecturer name
    • Student name
    • Student number
    • Statement of word count
  • Essay
    • Introduction
    • Body (developing the argument)
    • Conclusion
    • Bibliography
  • If Required
    • Table of Contents (if the essay is divided into distinct sections or chapters)
    • List of Abbreviations
    • Synopsis
    • Appendices


  • All essays are submitted electronically through Turnitin via the ARK Learning Management System.
  • Essays are typed on A4-sized paper.
  • All margins are at least 2.5cm.
  • Text is in a 12-point font and double-spaced (except in lengthy quotations, footnotes and bibliography, which are single spaced).
  • Pages are numbered in the top right-hand corner.
  • Student name and student number are to appear in the header (top left corner) of each page.
  • Wordcount includes title page, headings and all text, footnotes and references, but excludes bibliography.
  • Where a wordcount is specified for an assessment task, the submitted material must be within 10% of this and must be accompanied by a statement of the wordcount.
  • Inclusive language should be used where possible.
  • Foreign words are italicised, except when used in actual script, e.g. Greek or Hebrew.

Quotations (Turabian 25.1–2)

Whenever another author’s words are included in an essay, this is a quotation and must be indicated in one of the following two ways:
  • Short quotations (up to about four lines) are incorporated in the body of the text and enclosed in double quotation marks.
  • Lengthy quotations are single-spaced and indented by 1cm from both margins, with no quotation marks. 

Punctuation (Turabian 21.12.2 and 25.3.2)

End of quotation: period/comma always inside   .” or ,”
  semicolon/colon always outside ”; or ”:
  when the quotation itself is a question ?”
  if you are questioning the quotation ”?

Content omitted within a quotation is indicated by three ellipsis points: …

Scriptural References

Scriptural references are included, in brackets, in the body of the text, rather than in notes.

In scriptural references:
  • a colon is placed between chapter and verse(s): e.g. Exod 12:1
  • an en-dash placed between verse numbers indicates a block of verses e.g. Exod 12:1–5
  • a comma (followed by a space) is placed between different verses within the same chapter of a book: e.g. Exod 12:1–5, 10, 17–19
  • a semicolon (followed by a space) is placed between references from different chapters of the same book and between references from different books e.g. Exod 12:1–5; 20:2; Deut 5:8; 10:2–4
When a part only of a verse is referred to, ‘a’ or ‘b’ may be added according to whether the first or second part is concerned: e.g., Matt 16:16b; Rom 5:12a.
Abbreviations of biblical books are as follows:
OT: Gen Exod Lev Num Deut Josh
  Judg Ruth 1–2 Sam 1–2 Kgs 1–2 Chr Ezra
  Neh Tob Jdt Esth 1–2 Macc Job
  Ps Prov Eccl Song Wis Sir
  Isa Jer Lam Bar Ezek Dan
  Hos Joel Amos Obad Jonah Mic
  Nah Hab Zeph Hag Zech Mal
NT: Matt Mark Luke John Acts Rom
  1–2 Cor Gal Eph Phil Col 1–2 Thess
  1–2 Tim Titus Phlm Heb Jas 1–2 Pet
  1–2–3 John Jude Rev      


Essays and assignments must contain appropriate referencing, including footnotes (as required) and a bibliography. References are to be in the Note – Bibliography format of the ‘Chicago Style,’ as set out in:

Turabian, Kate L.  A Manual for Writers of Research Papers, Theses, and Dissertations: Chicago Style for Students and Researchers. 9th ed.  Revised by Wayne C. Booth, Gregory G. Colomb, and the University of Chicago Press Editorial Staff. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2018.

What follows is a summary of important elements of this style. Students should refer to chapters 16 and 17 of the above text for any further clarification that is required, and for details not explicitly mentioned here. EndNote referencing software is available to postgraduate and research students.


Footnotes are used to acknowledge the sources of information for an essay or assignment.  Careful use of footnotes shows the research that underlies an essay, and allows readers to identify and retrieve references for their own use. See Turabian 16.1. Footnotes should be used to indicate the source for:
  • all direct quotations
  • any paraphrase or summary of an author’s ideas or arguments
    (i.e., putting someone else’s thoughts into your own words)
Information obtained from the internet or from other electronic resources must be cited.
Footnotes are marked in the text by a superscript number at the end of the sentence or quotation to which the note refers (after any punctuation).  At the bottom of the page, the number is repeated, followed by the necessary information.
Footnotes are single-spaced and numbered consecutively throughout the essay. They may be printed in a smaller font size than the body of the essay. The first reference to a text should give full publication details. Subsequent references only need to include the author’s surname and the title (appropriately shortened).
Ibid. and op. cit. should not be used.


The bibliography lists the major works that have been consulted in researching the essay, including all texts that are cited in footnotes. The bibliography is single-spaced and arranged alphabetically by author’s surname. A hanging indent is used when the reference exceeds one line. A blank line is left between each entry. If the next entry is by the same author three em-dashes are used in place of the author’s name. See Turabian 16.2.


Dulles, Avery R. The Craft of Theology: From Symbol to System. New expanded ed. New York: Crossroad Publishing, 1995.

———. Models of Revelation. Garden City: Doubleday, 1983.